The Mayans created a great civilization in parts of what are now Mexico and Honduras and in Guatemala. The ancestors of the Mayans were hunters but about 2, 000 BC they adopted farming as a way of life. In the years from 300 BC to 250 AD organised Mayan kingdoms emerged. Then from 250 AD to 600 AD an advanced civilization emerged. The Mayans invented writing and they made great advances in astronomy and mathematics.
Mayan civilization was at its peak from 600 AD to 900 AD. However after 900 AD it declined. In the central rain forest cities were abandoned. We are not sure why. Perhaps there were ecological changes and famines occurred. Or perhaps warfare between the different Mayan kingdoms caused disaster. At any rate in the far north and south people continued to live in cities. Mayan civilization did not die completely.
Then in the 1520s Spanish conquistadors invaded and conquered the Mayans. However the descendants of the Mayans continue to live on today.
There was no single Mayan state. Instead there was a people with a single culture and religion divided into many city states. (Areas of countryside ruled by a city). Each city state or kingdom was ruled by an autocrat (a man with absolute power). However, although although they had unlimited power Mayan rulers usually had a council of important men to advise them. Warfare between Mayan kingdoms was common.
In the center of each Mayan city was an area of palaces, pyramid temples (some of them 70 meters high) and squares, where religious ceremonies were held. In the squares were stelae (upright stones) which were carved with the dates of important ceremonies and events.
Ordinary people lived in the surrounding houses. Most of the Mayans lived in the countryside but many cities were large. Some had populations of 45, 000.
Below the rulers were the nobles and priests. Below them were freemen, craftsmen and farmers. Below them were slaves who did all the hardest work.
The Mayans did not have animals for carrying loads. All goods were carried by human beings.
The Mayans did not have metal tools. All their weapons and tools were made from wood and stone.
However the Mayans invented a system of writing using pictures to represent sounds. Writing was painted onto books made from fig tree bark. It was also painted on pottery. Unfortunately the Spaniards burned many Mayan books so little is known of their history.
The Mayans also wrote numbers and they had a symbol for zero, which was very unusual among ancient civilizations. The Mayans were excellent astronomers and they could predict eclipses.
The Mayans practiced 'slash and burn' agriculture. They cut down an area of forest and burned the trees. They Mayans sowed crops in May and harvested them in November. However after a few years the soil would lose its fertility. The farmers would then 'slash and burn' another part of the forest. Meanwhile the abandoned area would become overgrown again.
Mayan farmers also drained swampy areas for farming. They dug canals for irrigation.
Mayan farmers did not have plows but they did use digging sticks.
Maize was the staple food of the Mayans but they also grew beans, chilies, sweet potatoes and squashes. The Mayans also ate fruit like papaya, watermelon and avocados.
The Mayans ate animals like deer, turkeys, dogs, peccaries (wild pigs) and a kind of rodent called an agouti. They also fished.
The Mayans also kept bees for honey.
In the mornings Mayans ate a 'porridge' made of maize and chilies called saka. During the day they ate 'dumplings' made of maize dough with vegetables or meat inside them. The 'dumplings' were called tamales and they were wrapped in leaves from maize plants. The main meal was in the evening. Mayans ate maize 'pancakes' called tortillas. They were eaten with 'stew' made with vegetable and (sometimes) meat.
The Mayans drank an alcoholic drink called blache. Mayan nobles drank chocolate.
Ordinary Mayans lived in simple huts of wood or stone with thatched roofs. They had no chimneys or windows. They did not have wooden doors either. Instead doorways were hung with cloth screens.
There was very little furniture. Mayans slept on beds, which were low platforms made of a wooden frame filled with woven bark.
Dead Mayans were buried under the floors of their houses.
Rich Mayans, of course, lived in far more elaborate homes with many rooms.
Living in a hot climate both sexes wore simple cotton clothes. Men wore a loincloth. Women wore a long cotton dress called a huipil. It if turned cold both sexes wore a cloak called a manta.
Mayans wore leather sandals.
The Mayans were short, stocky people with dark hair. Both sexes wore their hair long and tied back.
They believed that flattened foreheads were beautiful. While their skulls were still soft babies had wooden frames attached to them to flatten them. The Mayans also believed that being cross-eyed was attractive. So they tied a bead on the front of a child's head so it dangled between their eyes. The child would get cross-eyes by looking at the bead.
The Mayans also tattooed themselves and they filed their teeth.
Mayan nobles put clay on top of their noses to make a long ridge. Rich Mayans also wore jewelry made from jade.
The Mayans also hunted macaws and parrots for their feathers, which were used to make headdresses.
Mayan women carried small children on their backs. That left their hands free for cooking and weaving. Girls learned these skills from their mothers. They also learned to make pottery. Mayan boys learned farming and other trades from their fathers.
Both boys and girls got married in the early or mid teens. Their parents chose a partner for them helped by a matchmaker.
The Mayans were polytheists (they worshiped many gods). The most important god was the sun god. However almost every aspect of life had its own god. There was a maize god and even a god of tattooing.The Mayans believed that it was important to keep the gods happy. To please them the Mayans burned incense in temples. They also practiced human sacrifice. Captives taken in war were often sacrificed. (If they could the Mayans would not kill their enemies. Instead they would capture them for sacrifice).
The Mayans built many pyramid shaped temples and they had many priests. The priest practised divination (fortune telling) and carried out sacrifices. The Mayans also had many religious ceremonies that involved music and dancing. (The Mayans used wind and percussion instruments rather than string instruments. They played wooden flutes and trumpets and drums made from turtle shells).
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The Aztec people/tribe were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in t